Spiritual Formation

First and foremost, Christian formation is at the core of Christian higher education. Teaching students to live out their faith on a day-to-day basis is central to the mission of JBU and is the heart of the gospel. The goal is to encourage growth in Christ-likeness through the practice of spiritual disciplines and help us understand what difference Christ is making in our lives. The Spiritual Formation subscales are:

  • Spiritual Maturity : Measures awareness of Christ’s presence, role of the Holy Spirit, God’s forgiveness, relationship with Christ, and evidence of Christ in one’s life.
  • Spiritual Practices : Measures closeness of relationship with Christ, and spiritual disciplines like prayer, Bible reading, church involvement, and sharing one’s faith with non-believers.

Emotional & Relational Competencies

A unique part of the SRA is measuring competencies that reflect emotional and relational awareness and management. Most of us were raised with the assumption that IQ is the best measure and predictor of human potential. Over the past 20 years, however, researchers have found that this isn’t necessarily the case—that in actuality, a person’s emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) might be a greater predictor of success.

Emotional intelligence describes a person’s ability to understand his or her own emotions and the emotions of others and to act appropriately based on this understanding. Given the nature, purpose and size limitations of the SRA we do not seek to assess or incorporate all of the concepts and constructs of EQ into our assessment but rather those that a group of leaders involved in Christian higher education have agreed are some of the key areas that can be developed and assessed over a four-year educational experience. The emotional and relational subscales of the SRA are as follows:

Emotional Competencies


  • Emotional Self-Awareness : Overall, measures the ability to recognize one’s own emotions and their effects. Specifically, measures the ability to identify one’s own emotions, the ability to understand why feelings occur, and the ability to understand the implications of one’s own emotions.
  • Accurate Self-Assessment : Overall, measures the ability to understand one’s inner resources, abilities, and limits. Specifically, measures being aware of one’s strengths and limits, the ability to exhibit a sense of humor about oneself, openness to constructive criticism and feedback, and having a sound sense of one’s self-worth and capabilities.
  • Self-Worth : Overall, measures the ability to recognize one’s value and worth. Specifically, measures awareness of one’s own good qualities, ability to do things as well as most other people, and satisfaction toward one’s self.


  • Emotional Responsibility : Overall, measures emotional responsibility. Specifically, measures the extent that someone takes personal responsibility for how they feel, for how they manage their feelings, and for how they express their feelings.
  • Emotional Self-Management : Overall, measures healthy and unhealthy management of one’s own emotions. Specifically, measures keeping disruptive emotions and impulses under control, knowing how to manage disturbing emotions and impulses, even to channel them in useful ways, staying calm and clear-headed under high stress or during a crisis, know how to experience happiness and make it last, and seeing the upside in events.
  • Anger Management : Overall, measures the ability to manage anger in healthy ways. Specifically, measures the extent that one outwardly expresses anger (physically or verbally) or inwardly expresses anger (suppress it), and how one manages anger either by trying to control it from happening or deal with it internally.
  • Healthy Sexuality : Overall, measures how one expresses their sexuality as a single person. Specifically, measures understanding the consequences and impact of premarital sexual activities on their relationship with God and future marriage.

Relational Competencies

Relational Awareness:

  • Empathy : Overall, measures understanding and empathizing with other people. Specifically, measures the ability to be aware of, to understand, and to appreciate the feelings of others. Measures how well one respects and relates to people of diverse backgrounds.
  • Listening : Overall, measures one’s ability to listen to others. Specifically, measures the ability to encourage someone to talk, listening when someone is talking, understanding what someone is really trying to say, giving the listener one’s full attention, and asking clarifying questions.

Relational Management:

  • Conflict Management : Overall, measures the ability to manage conflict. Specifically, measures the ability to manage disagreements in healthy ways, understand differing perspectives, and find a common ideal that all parties can endorse.
  • Forgiveness : Overall, measures the capacity to forgive others. Specifically, measures the ability to be a forgiving person, forgiving when someone doesn’t ask for it or feel guilty, dealing with resentfulness and bitterness.